​CUlturally Sensitive TOols and Methods for ethnic minorities (CUSTOM): Building bridges between theory and practice in diabetes self-management education and support.

​Compared to native Danes, non-Western ethnic minority groups are 2.5 times more likely to develop type 2 diabetes and less likely to benefit from diabetes self-management and support (DSMES). Although studies show that culturally appropriate DSMES can enhance glycaemic control and improve health behaviour, little is known about effective educational strategies and methods targeting ethnic minorities.

The objective of CUSTOM is to develop and evaluate an intervention that increases access to culturally sensitive DSMES and supports ethnic minorities in making health-promoting decisions about their care.

CUSTOM is considered a complex intervention due to many interacting components in its design, complex behaviour changes in those delivering and receiving the intervention, many stakeholders, and highly variable outcomes. The trial will be undertaken as a pragmatic controlled trial. 

The trial will be tested in three arms:

  • Group A: Centre for Diabetes, Copenhagen Municipality, n = 103
  • Group B: Local community setting in Tingbjerg, Copenhagen Municipality, n = 103
  • Group C: Usual care in the west are a of Copenhagen, municipalities of Høje-Taastrup, Hvidovre, Albertslund, Brøndby and Ishøj, n = 103

Group A and B will receive the same interventions but in different contexts – a local community setting and a diabetes care centre. Participants in the control group will receive usual care which may comprise individual consultation and/or group-based education in a Danish-speaking group.

Using a design-based research, the intervention has been developed in collaboration with researchers, the target group and healthcare professionals from Centre for Diabetes (CfD) in Copenhagen Municipality.


The project aim of the intervention is, through the delivery of culturally sensitive DSMES, to support ethnic minorities with type 2 diabetes in making health-promoting decisions about their care and gaining insight into their goals, values and motivation to improve their daily diabetes self-management. The target group comprises ethnic minorities whose native language is Arabic, Urdu or Turkish.


Centre for Diabetes, Municipality of Copenhagen and Aalborg University (CO-PI, Charlotte Glümer, Centre Director and Professor)

Other collaborators in the trial include a cluster of municipalities in the west area of Copenhagen (municipalities of Høje-Taastrup, Hvidovre, Albertslund, Brøndby and Ishøj).

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