Development of a core outcome set for diabetes after pregnancy prevention interventions (COS-DAP)

We develop a core outcome set (COS) for behaviour change interventions to prevent diabetes after pregnancies (DAP) affected by gestational diabetes. The COS is expected to enhance opportunities for comparison of future studies.

Gestational diabetes is one of the most common pregnancy complications, and studies have demonstrated that the condition increases the risk of various short- and long-term adverse outcomes, including the development of type 2-diabetes. In recent years, a number of studies have sought to investigate how to prevent type 2-diabetes in women with prior gestational diabetes. Unfortunately, the reported outcomes from these studies differ widely and this lack of consistency limits the understanding of health behaviour change mechanisms and intervention effects.

A recent systematic review of behavioural interventions concluded that while existing evidence suggests that intervention is superior to no intervention in prevention of type 2-diabetes in women with prior gestational diabetes, it is impossible to make recommendations on specific interventions based on current evidence, i.a. due to substantial heterogeneity in outcome measures. Thus, there is a need for alignment in reported outcomes in order to enhance comparison of studies and synthesise effects. Yet, it remains unclear which outcome measures are the most important to include in health behaviour interventions studies.

Seeking to develop a core outcome set (COS), this project uses established COS methodology, in four stages: 1) a systematic literature review, 2) discussion and cataloguing of outcome measures at an investigator meeting, 3) a two-round online Delphi survey, and 4) a consensus meeting with key stakeholders.  


The aim of this project is to develop a core outcome set (COS) for interventions seeking to prevent diabetes after pregnancy (DAP) in both women with prior gestational diabetes and their families.


  • School of Agriculture and Food Science, University College Dublin, Ireland
  • Centre for Outcomes Research and Evaluation (CORE), Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, and Department of Medicine, McGill University, Canada
  • Department of Public Health, Aarhus University


Kragelund Nielsen K, O’Reilly S, Wu N, Dasgupta K, Maindal HT. Development of a core outcome set for diabetes after pregnancy prevention interventions (COS-DAP): a study protocol. Trials 2018; 19(1): 708.

Dasgupta K, Maindal HT, Kragelund Nielsen K, O’Reilly S. Achieving penetration and participation in Diabetes After Pregnancy prevention interventions following gestational diabetes: a health promotion challenge. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice 2018; 145: 200-213.!/content/playContent/1-s2.0-S0168822718304881?